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Car and Driver - Beyond the Wind Tunnel: How Automakers Are Maximizing Vehicle-Efficiency Virtually

A few years ago, when Jaguar engineers commenced work on the recently introduced XE small sedan, they took what then seemed like a risky break from normal practice. Instead of building full-size clay models to develop the XE’s exterior details in a wind tunnel, they took a chance on a technology called Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). This enabled faster and less expensive development using digital simulation models instead of traditional physical prototypes. And a better chance of beating the class-leading BMW 3-series aerodynamic performance.